First I need to be clear here. I'm not sure if this is a revolutionary view, but it is certainly MY view and I haven't seen it anywhere else:
I do NOT believe that if you keep writing you'll just accidentally run into "Your Voice" and then you're done and the quest is over. In fact, I don't believe that a writer has a single voice at all. No, indeed, I believe a writer has as many voices as he/she decides to DEVELOP, and each of those voices will be unique to the writer.
You see, VOICE is a TOOL. Each voice is slightly different, sure, and each one has different strengths. That's why having multiple voices at hand is extremely useful -- each voice can be employed in a different story or even in a different chapter in the same novel in order to heighten certain effects.
Voices can be short. Brutal. Rhythmic. Human skin stretched tight on drums.
Other voices twist and writhe about and keep diving into different holes until you can't see where they're going in the dark tunnels of mind and then in one heartbeat they leap out at you and grab you like you're a rabbit and shake you once, twice, thrice and leave you bleeding and twitching in the mud.
They can be anything you want. Quick, sassy, velvety, violent, whatever.
But all voices have two elements in common:
1) They are composed of words
2) In order to use one, you have to DEVELOP it first
There's that word again. Develop. Why do I keep saying "develop" when everyone else says "find"? Well, first let's discuss how most writers develop a voice.
We are all, to some extent, built in with a certain voice and a certain style. It is an amalgam of what we have read and enjoyed, mashed together with whatever you remember from English classes, plastered over with yours or someone else's opinions on Grammar (Strunk and White, anyone?). The problem is this style we start out with (usually anyway) just isn't good. Go back and look at your last failed short story, or -- if you're established now and none of your stories fail -- go back and look at one of your early short stories from high school or junior high. See those stilted lines. Why are they stilted? What's going on? Why does that high-school/college/whatever prose seem impossible to disentangle even though you've rewritten entire BOOKs now?
Why? Because the style/voice in that piece is in conflict with itself. It wants to be the way you talk and think. It wants to be the way Hemingway talks and thinks. And don't forget your Composition teacher or your favorite SF writer or Strunk and White either. It's a vast CACOPHANY of OTHER voices, all struggling to be heard. All drowning each other out.
Why does it take people 1, 3, 10, or even 15 trunk novels to finally find a winning voice? Because it's a lot of work to overcome those voices, especially when you don't know that you're trying to write like other people and follow all these built-in rules. Struggling blindly like this, it's amazing anyone develops one voice much less two or three or more. No wonder it feels more like you "find" your vioce than a conscious decision to "develop one".
Sure this process works. Eventually. If you don't give up. Plenty of writers have gone through the process and ended up writing well or even dazzlingly. The problem is, this is the hard way of doing it. "Writing Like Other People" is exactly the process of DEVELOPING voice, yes, but you can speed the process up.
Let me show you how.
Say you really like Cormac McCarthy. You'd like to write a bit more like him, adopt a few of his flourishes. Good on you, he's a great writer. A Pulitzer and a National Book Award are hard to argue with.
But how do you do it?
Step 1) This is the obvious step. You'll need to READ him.
Sadly, this is where most writers' plans on developing a voice END. You read "The Road", "Blood Meridian", and "All the Pretty Horses", and think "Well, I hope that rubbed off." But strangely, it doesn't seem to work. So maybe you read again and again (pleasant but not strictly necessary). This is similar to brute-forcing your way into a password-protected computer. Hard, brutal, and it may eventually work, but it will take time.
Step 2) Define WHAT YOU LIKE about him.
In this step you are defining to yourself EXACTLY what you like about the author. This equates almost precisely with WHAT YOU WANT TO LEARN from the author.
Me, I like the lack of commas and apostrophes and quotation marks. To me, the streamlined prose falls straight into my brain faster and with less effort without all the noise. You may HATE this, though. If you do, don't put it on your list. Me, I also like his use of "and" to connect long lists of very simple sentences in All the Pretty Horse. I love his vast vistas that yank directly at your soul in Blood Meridian. I like his short, terse, chopped up prose in The Road. I like his images that burn like fire in your mind.
Your list might be COMPLETELY DIFFERENT than mine. That's okay. We might like him for different reasons, but that's why you do this:
So you can figure out what you need to focus on.
Step 3) Figure out HOW your author does the things you like.
This is the hard part. Sometimes you have to call in friends or relatives or even other writers to look at a passage and help you noodle HOW or WHY this unexpected sentence works or how he crafts this particular list of images. Where are the roots of them? How does he marry the words syntactically?
Like I said, this can be pretty hard, but all you need is one to three bullet points to keep in mind about any stylistic element.
Step 4) Write an inspired piece. Preferably three. And then try it on a novel or a novella to let it really sink in. (This is, like step 1, is something that many writers do, but without steps 2 and 3 it usually falls apart or reverts to your previous voice.)
Sounds simple, right? I've been reading McCarthy, so I should write a Western. Actually -- no. I don't recommend that at all. I actually recommend taking elements from TWO DIFFERENT WRITERS and doing your best to mash them up. That way you don't get too trapped in one author's vein. That way YOU can take the elements and make them YOURS.
An example, my short story "Teddy Bears and Tea Parties" ( http://www.chizine.com/teddy.htm ) was my second attempt at mixing McCarthy's style from The Road with Paul Jessup's blend of surrealism and postmodernism. It sold to ChiZine. I did three stories in this vein, each in a different setting and working on different elements of voice and theme, and of them #1 sucks and is trunked and #3 is still making the rounds and seems to get me more personalized rejections and "please-submit-again"s than any other story. Still, it may never get published. But that's okay. All three of these were experiments, and I learned staggering amounts from each of them.
Step 5) Do it again if you want to. There is always something to learn out there. Melville's ability to send shuddering meaning into even the whizz and smoke of a rope. Chabon's ability to express the entire history of a tenement building that has nothing to do with the plot and still keep you hooked.
After all, these are your saws and your lathes. Keep them sharp!